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Simple VIM Reference

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When you first open the VIM editor, you are in the command mode of the editor.  The command mode is not an edit mode; it's just for typing commands.  
Insertion mode is where you can type text normally. (Like in windows notepad)  

To get into insertion mode, type i (abbreviation for insert).  
To get into command mode, press the Esc key.
If you're ever not sure which mode you're in, just press the Esc key and you'll be in command mode for sure.
The following commands are executed in command mode.
Copy & Paste
Press v. (To enter visual mode so you can highlight stuff)
Use the arrow keys (or h,j,k,l,w,b,$) to highlight
Press y to yank, p to paste. (shift-p to open up a line above and paste)
Copy a word                                  yw
Copy a line                                    yy
Copy from cursor to end of line     y$
Copy & Paste (with Registers)
Press v. (To enter visual mode so you can highlight stuff)
Use the arrow keys (or h,j,k,l,w,b,$) to highlight
Type "ay to yank into register a.
Type "ap to paste from register a.
Press v. (To enter visual mode so you can highlight stuff)
Use the arrow keys (or h,j,k,l,w,b,$) keys to higlight and press d
Delete character                     x
Delete word                            dw
Delete word and insert text    cw
Delete line                              dd
Delete to end of line               d$
Press v and then arrow keys (or h,j,k,l,w,$) to highlight lines of text.
Type > or < to indent right or left.
(to indent more, type 2> or 3>)
(to change your indenting/tabbing to use spaces and not tabs, type :set et)
(to set auto-indenting, type :set ai)
(to set the tab-size, type :set ts=2 (or whatever number you want)
(also, for tabbing-size, set shiftwidth (>) by typing :set sw=2)
Go up                                 k
Go down                             j
Go left                                h
Go right                              l
Go right a word                  w
Go left a word                    b
Go to beginning of file       gg
Go to end of file                 G
Go 22 lines down              22j
Go to end of line                $
Go to beginning of  non-whitespace part of line   ^
Go right 5 words                5w
Insert Text
Insert at cursor                      i
Insert after cursor                   a     (useful when at the end of a line)
Open a line below cursor and insert   o
Open a line above cursor and insert   shift-o
Quitting VIM
Type :q to quit the editor.
Saving a file
Type :w to write to the file.
Search & Replace
Search  /  (after the slash put whatever you want to find and press the enter key)
Find next       n
Find previous   N
Turn off highlighting (after a search)  :noh
Find next instance of a word that your cursor is over    *
Search and replace from current line to end of file   :,$s/search/replace/gc (the gc means global and confirm)

Shell (Exit temporarily to a shell)
Type  :sh

To come back to VIM  from the shell type  exit
Split Window Editing
Type :sp followed by the filename.
Go to window above  ctrl-w-k
Go to window below  ctrl-w-j
Maximize window size  ctrl-w  _  
(the underscore is NOT  pressed at the same time as the ctrl-w)
Make all windows equal size  ctrl-w =
(the equals sign is NOT pressed at the same time as the ctrl-w)
Undo a Command
Undo                              u
Redo an undo                ctrl-r
View Directory & File Explorer
Type :S  (the S is uppercase)

This will split the window and open up a file explorer.  
Use the <enter> key to select directories or to open files.
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